Практичні завдання (заочне відділення)

Practical assignments to seminar 1

                                            Proto-Germanic phonology

  1. Identify the phonetic processes in the Proto-Germanic vocalic system.
    1 Gth kuni > OE cynn a Germanic Vowel Shift
    2 L medius > OE midde
    3 L octo > Gth ahtau b Germanic Fracture
    4 Ukr возити > – везу
    5 L sedeo > sēdi c I-Umlaut
    6 L ventus > OE wind
    7 Celt hurnan > OE horn d Ablaut Qualitative
    8 OE*namnian > OE nemnan
    9 Scr mā > OE mōdōr e Ablaut Quantitative
    10 Rus беру > сбор – брать
  2. Identify the phonetic processes in the Proto-Germanic system of consonants.
    1 Gth baitrs > OE bittor a Grimm’s Law
    2 OHG fimf > OE fīf
    3 E paw > G Pfote b Verner’s Law
    4 L decem > Gth taihun
    5 OHG uns > OE ūs c Rhotacism
    6 Scr bhēdami > OE bītan
    7 OE wæs – wesan – wǣron d The Second Consonant Shift
    8 L dictāre > OE dihtan
    9 Gr dekás > Gth tigus e West-Germanic lengthening of consonants
    10 OE ceas – ceosan – coren
    11 Gr patér > Gth fadar f Loss of nasals before fricatives (Ingveonic loss of nasals)
    12 E drink > OHG trinchan

     Old English phonology

  3. Identify the changes in the following OE words. Match the names of processes with the appropriate OE words.
    1.  OE vowels
      1 sifon > siofon а   OE Breaking
      2 mūs > mys b   Palatal diphthongization
      3 melcan > meolcan c   Back (velar) mutation
      4 scacan > sceacan d   Contraction
      5 tihan > tēon e   i-Umlaut
    2. OE Vowels
      1 *lārian > lǣran ‘teach’ a   OE Breaking
      2 OE hira > hiora ‘their’ b   Palatal diphthongization
      3 *ærm > earm ‘arm’ c   Back (velar) mutation
      4 OE scort > sceort ‘short’ d   Contraction
      5 *þīhan > þēon ‘prosper’ e   i-Umlaut
    3. OE Consonants
      *munþ > mūþ ‘mouth’ a   Palatalization
      OE hros > hors b   Assibilation
      OE efn > emn  ‘even’ c   Metathesis
      OE  cēse         ‘cheese’ d   Assimiltion
      OE cild > child ‘child’ e   Rejection of consonants
      OE sæʒde > sǣde  ‘said’

      Middle English phonology

  4. Identify the phonetic processes of the Middle English vocalic system. Match the names of processes with the words in which they took place.
    1 OE dæƷ > ME  day a Levelling
    2 OE æfter > ME  after
    3 OE helpan > ME  helpen b Lengthening in an open syllable
    4 OE mete > ME  mete
    5 OE tahte > ME  tauhte c Shortening in a closed syllable
    6 OE fyrst > ME  first, ferst, furst
    7 OFr chois > ME  choice d Qualitative Dialect Changes
    8 OE fīfta > ME  fifte
    9 OE eald > ME  ald e Monophthongization
    10 OE dēōp > ME  deep
    11 OE eahte > ME  eihte f Diphthongization
    12 OE māra > ME  more
  5. Compare the consonant changes in the words given below. Identify the phonetic processes of the Middle English consonant system.
    1 OE hring > ME ring a Assibilation
    2 OE seofon > ME seven
    3 OE hwæt > ME what b Development of ME phonemes from OE allophones
    4 OE scip > ME ship
    5 OE weƷ > ME wey c Vocalization
    6 OE hrōf > ME roof
    7 OE cild > ME child d Loss of consonants / of initial “h” before sonorants
    8 OE hwånne > ME whanne
    9 OE boƷa > ME bowe e Orthographical metathesis
    10 OE fisc > ME fish

    Early New English phonology

  6. Identify the phonetic processes of the Early New English vocalic system. Match the names of processes with the words in which they took place.
    1 ME take [a:] > NE take [ei] a The Great Vowel Shift
    2 ME fir [fīr] > NE fire [faiə]
    3 ME noun [u:] > NE noun [au] b Rise of new short phonemes
    4 ME watch [a] > NE watch [ɔ]
    5 ME deep [ẹ:] > NE deep [i:] c Rise of new long phonemes
    6 ME burden > NE burden
    7 ME deep [ẹ:] > NE deep [i:] d Rise of new diphthongs and triphthongs
    8 ME care[сārе] > NE саге [kɛə]
    9 ME stone[ɔ:] > NE stone [ou]
    10 ME floor > NE floor
    11 ME kind [i:] > NE kind [ai]
  7. Compare the consonant changes in the words given below. Identify the phonetic processes of the Early New English consonant system.
    1 ME often [ftn] > NE often [fn] a Vocalization of [r]
    2 ME was [s] > NE was [z]
    3 ME relation [sj ] > NE relation [ʃ] b Simplification of consonant clusters
    4 NE far [far] > NE far [fa:]
    5 ME soldier [dj] > NE soldier [dʒ] c Voicing of Voiceless Fricatives
    6 ME climben [mb] > NE climb [klaim]
    7 ME knowleche [tʃ] > NE knowledge[dʒ] d Rise of New Sibilants and Affricates
    8 ME pleasure[zj] > NE pleasure [ʒ]
    9 ME this [ɵ] > NE this [ð]
    10 ME nature [tj] > NE nature [tʃ]
  8. Identify the phonetic changes in the words given below:
    1 L cordR сердце >  Gth hairto >  OE heorte >  ME herte >  NE hearte >  heart
    OE hærte
    OHG herza
             
    2   Gth hūs >  OE hūs >  ME hous >  NE hous >  house
             
    3 Gr kratúsR крепкий >  Gth hardusOE hærdG hart >  OE heard >  ME hard >  NE hard  
     
     
           
    4 R делать >  OHG dȃttȃt >  OE dōn >  ME don >  NE do

    Practical assignment. Seminar 2.

1. Make a morphological analysis of the given OE words according to the scheme added:

sīō scīr hātte  … hæfde  ambyrne wind. (sīō=seo).

Ohtheres and Wulfstans  Story

Ohthere sǣde þæt sīō scīr hātte HalƷoland þe hē on būde. Hē cwæð þæt nān man ne būde benorðan him. þonne is ān port on sūðeweardum þæm lande, þone man hǣt ScirinƷes heal. þyder hē cwæð þæt man mihte ƷeseƷlian on ānum mōnðe, Ʒyf man on niht wicode, and ælce dæƷe hæfd ambyrne wind; and ealle ðā hwīle hē sceal seƷlian be lande, and on þæt stēōrbord him bið ǣrest Īraland, an  þonne ðā iʒland þe synd betux Īralande and þissum lande. þonne is þis land oð hē cymð to ScirinƷes heale, and ealne weƷ on þæt bæcbord NorðweƷ.

Word-Form From the Text Word and its Characte-ristics(from the dictionary) Morpho-logical Characte-ristics of the Word IE Correspon-dences Germanic Correspon-eances Notes on Phon. Processes
N 1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Make a morphological analysis of the given ME words from the text by G. Chaucer. Concentrate your attention on the changes in ME grammar.

his shoures soote, …   hath perced, …   Inspired hath,  … Hath… y-ronne

 

Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote

The droghte of March hath perced to the roote,

And bathed every veyne in swich licour,

Of which vertu engendred is the flour,

 

Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth

Inspired hath in every holt and heeth.

he tendre croppes, and the younge sonne

Hath in the Ram his halfe cours y-ronne.